A Brief Overview of Development

hello this is Dr Brouk today we're going to talk about development the branch of psychology that studies development is called developmental psychology it is the scientific study of social psychological intellectual and biological attributes that are consistent or change across life spam that is from chris option to death development begins at conception consumption is the moment the dispur fertilizes the egg and the result is a single cell called is like alt from conception to birth is called the prenatal period and it is divided into three stages does like good stage or the journal stage the embryonic stage and the fetal stage the cycles stage is about the first two weeks and during this stage that single cell will continue to get divided into many cells and it will travel down the flu paean to and get attached to the wall of the uterus do a second stage or the embryonic stage this cells continue to divide and eventually will lead to the development of many systems organs and structures like the nervous system internal organs like the heart and the digestive system and external areas like the face legs and the lips the last stage is called the federal state and this is from week nine until birth yes the embryonic stage goes from week two through week 8 let's go back to the funeral stage it is from week nine until birth and steering a stage many systems and orgasm structures that began developing during the embryonic stage grow and mature and become much more sophisticated to the point that the fetus can survive outside of the uterus this is also called

of my ability let's watch a video regarding prenatal raised about the active month tens of millions of sperm Atossa rush ahead and a hunting trip that may eventually lead to a fateful encounter and a promise of new life only one can win the rest will end their lives in a matter of days in the marathon race to life there are no consolation places only one winner will merge with the option yeah yeah the sperm move forward by wriggling their tails through the dangerous obstacle track the acidity in the vagina the cervix and uterus the obstacles claimed many lives the slow and we give up of the skull of track this direction will get trapped the road separates into two for lucky in tubes but there is an oven waiting in only one of them yeah not only stamina and talent count as generals requires a lot of them strong currents prevent the sperm from continuing forward the follicles from the uterine wall capture many and hold them back yeah yeah yeah finally at the end of the tunnel like a mysterious star the oven the sperm attack is nurse's a sperm cell carries a mysterious load each can create a unique human being unlike any other in the world now there are only about a hundred sperm left competing for the offer but only one will make it through the audience protective layer and their final efforts one suddenly manages to penetrate it is the winner after the obvious pierced it hardens and becomes impermeable for the rest of the stone the journey has ended in failure yeah for the winner it is for beginning it sheds its now unnecessary tail and blow and is free the father's genetic material merges with the mothers the new and unique cell is created the fertilized ovum at this moment almost all of the future babies features are determined and fetal development begins within a week of conception fertilized egg known as a blastocyst will make its way to your uterus the egg is about the size of a pendant in days the cells in the egg arrange themselves into groupings the inner cell mass will become your baby the outer cells will become the amniotic sac and placenta the blastocyst then sheds its protective casing in a process called patching and burrows into the lush uterine wall around week five you're developing baby is the size of a sesame seed the cells that once formed the blastocysts inner cell mass begin organizing and arranging giving shape to the young embryo and forming primitive organs your baby's brain and spinal cord are visible from his translucent skin right around this time your baby circulatory system also forms and his heart begins to be your baby looks more like a tiny tadpoles in a human he's drawing nutrients and oxygen for the newly formed the center and umbilical cord bye week 9 the embryonic tail is gone your baby's looking more humans every day recruiting limbs and fingers defined nose mouth and eyes and tiny year lows your new resident is about the size of a great and weighs a fraction of an ounce it's hard to believe how rapidly one cell evolves in such a short time into the unmistakable body of a baby at 10 weeks and barely the size of a kumquat your baby is entering the fetal stage of development his facial features are defined and his tooth buds are forming over the next week's his tissues and organs will rapidly grow and mature the webbing is gone between his fingers and toes and his nails and fingerprints are developing your baby can open and close his fists and curl his toes thanks to his developing muscles and reflexes he's now moving his lens and kicking up a storm if this is your first baby though he likely won't feel his letters until 18 to 20 weeks through translucent skin his vital organs are visible and functioning including his growing brain nervous system intestines and liver which is making red blood cells in place of the disappearing yoke sent the umbilical cord is working hard and one vein delivers oxygen and nutrient rich blood to your baby to arteries then carry the blood away around week 12 the kidneys have begun producing urine which your baby will soon start screaming into the amniotic fluid he'll swallow the fluid and the process will begin again bye week 14 your baby's eyes and ears have moved into place and he can squint brown and rumors are now beginning the second trimester of pregnancy which many women say is when they feel their best between 15 and 20 weeks your baby will more than double in size as his body grows his nervous system is rapidly maturing his nerves are connecting his brain to the rest of his body traveling from the brain the brain stem and down the spine and beginning to extend into his torso and land your baby skeleton is changing to the soft cartilage is starting to harden into bone this happens first in the arms and legs sensory development is picking up speed your baby's brain is designating special areas or smell taste hearing vision and touch at this stage your baby may be able to hear your party and voice so read aloud or sing a happy to your baby may even be sucking his thumb now at about 18 weeks you'll start to experience one of the most exciting parts of pregnancy feeling your baby's movement is flexing arms and legs may feel like gentle flutters at first they'll become even stronger and more frequent in the weeks ahead at 20 weeks your baby weighs a little more than 10 ounces and measures about 10 inches from head to heel about the length of a banana this week is a big milestone the halfway point in your pregnancy yeah ok let's continue with the fetal stage yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah Oh yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah ok let's talk about some of the environmental factors that can natively a fact prenatal development these are referred to as a teratogen and they include alcohol tobacco paint does murdering fish medication malnutrition stress and so on let's watch a video on teratogen sense yeah yeah mmm yeah yeah yeah hmm hmm yeah hmm yeah yeah please let me know if you have any questions about the material that we have covered so far let's talk about cognitive people development in addition to physical development developmental psychology studies or ability to analyze attend compare conceptualize interpretation language processes learning and memory and these are collectively referred to as cognitions so here we are going to talk about one of the theories associated with cognitive development and that is the theory by jean-pierre Shay was right here p she said their children go through four stages of cognitive development the first one is called sensory motor the second one pre-operational the third concrete operational and the fourth is called formal operational stage each stage is associated with certain key developments and characteristics the first stage is called the sensorimotor stage and this is from birth to two the infant explores his or her environment through his or her senses and motor skills you know that babies when they can they grab things and immediately whatever that thing might be goes to the mouth here you are trying to explore their environment through their senses and motor skills one of the key characteristics of this stage is called object permanence and object permanence is the ability to know that things continue to exist even when they cannot be observed so if we're playing with a ball and the ball goes under the couch the baby knows that that ball is still there he just cannot see it the next stage is called a pre-operational stage and at this stage the child can use symbols like language also during this stage the child who was very egocentric at the beginning beginning to understand other people's perspectives youjizz second stage of cognitive development is called the pre-operational stage and it is from age – 26 do the stage PG says that the child can use symbols including language and also the child is very egocentric at the beginning of the stage but by the end of the stage he or she can understand other people's perspectives so egocentric is inability to understand other people's perspectives the third state is called the concrete operational here the child can think logically about objects and situations that are very black and white they are very concrete and he or she exhibits conservation conservation is the ability to know that change in the appearance of something doesn't change is quantity and its quality so if i have a tall glass of orange juice and I pour the same amount in a short into a short and fat class the amount doesn't decrease it is the same amount of orange juice the last stage of cognitive development is formal operational stage and dealing the stage the child can engage in logical abstract and hypothetical thinking and according to Piaget this is from age 11 and up watch this video on cognitive development yeah hi everyone today we will talk about cognitive development of pie digit as a biologist budget was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment behavior is controlled through mental organizations called schemas that the individual uses to represent the world and designate action this adaptation is driven by a biological drive to obtain balance between schemas and the environment let's continue with four stages of budget during this stage the child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflect sections thought derives from sensation and movement the child learns that he is separate from his environment and that aspects of environment continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach of his senses teaching for a child in this stage should be geared to the sensory motor system in this example we see that there is a child in sensory stage and he still develop object permanence when mother take his toy from child's hand child will realize the deficiency of toy and child starts to cry applying his new knowledge of language the child begins to use symbols to represent objects early in this state he also personifies objects he is now better able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present the child has difficulty conceptualising time oriented to the present he takes in information and then changes it in his mind to fit his ideas teaching must take into account the child's vivid fantasies and undeveloped sense of time using neutral words body outlines and equipment a child can touch gives him an active role in learning in this example mother asks her son on which side of table there is more bottle of milk and child chose bottle of milk on the right side because in this stage child has lack of conservation during this stage accommodation increases the child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgments about concrete or observable phenomena in teaching this child giving him the opportunity to ask questions and to explain things back to you allows him to mentally manipulate information in this example like previous example mother asked again her son on which side of table there are more bottles of milk however in this stage child realized that there are equal bottles on both sides because child gain reversibility while deciding this stage brings cognition this person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments that his point he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning teaching for the adolescent maybe wide range king because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspectives in this example child get bored and decided to play football while playing he hit the ball towards windows and then windows were broken and mother came and she forbids the playing football at home after that child agree with his mother this show that child a lies facts by judging in addition to physical and cognitive development we also look at social development and attachment is a psychosocial development in addition to studying physical and cognitive development developmental psychologists study psychosocial development one of the topics in psychosocial development is attachment and Harlow was one of the pioneers in research on attachment what watch this video fifty years ago Harry Harlow revolutionized the way we raise our children he taught us to hold them and to help them and in doing so he became one of America's most celebrated science these tests give us a new definition on something which is extremely important nothing which affects the entire personality something which we call a rock he found the key because his work shows that this mother-child relationship and bond could really only be described as his love but in order to teach us how to love our children Harry Harlow perform some of the most chilling and distressing experiments ever seen in an animal of our tree Harry Harlow was infamous for his work on primates putting them in all kinds of devices that devastated the infant's psychologically what was it deep down inside him that led him to do those things to animals but did Harry Harlow have the right to hurt animals to help us was the price they paid work the knowledge we gain and who was the real Harry Harlow a brilliant scientist or an unforgivably brutal savings frustrated with his work at the University in madison wisconsin it was at the local zoo that the young and ambitious Harry Harlow took the first steps in his controversial career for psychologists and medical researchers the standard laboratory animal in the nineteen thirties was the white rat but for Harlow rats had little appeal Harlow was spending his time watching a runner times and as he did so he became convinced that primates could tell us much more about human behavior than rats ever could how just get what he sees this incredible parallel to human behavior and it's like goodbye rap he has to go and and try to persuade the university to let him do it and they basically say well we have an abandoned box factory if you fix it up you can have a laboratory so he does here holler created one of the first primate laboratories in America and began his work to help our understanding of human behavior for over 30 years his team included his assistant Helen Roy Harry Harlow spent a great deal of time in here when he was in here the door was always open unless he was in a serious conversation that he didn't want anyone to interrupt so we had a very close working relationship in terms of proximity so he would sit in here at his desk which was positioned in front of that window this way in his chair was behind it I think in later years some people upset Oh Harry Harlow I was there and he started doing this research and I was thinking oh that's so terrible how can he do that well I knew those people and I don't think they were I think this awareness has come at a later time and now it seems so obvious yeah Harlow was about to embark on an ambitious and controversial project to prove to a skeptical scientific world what he had come to believe from watching the araya tanks at the zoo to prove that animals can think the whole history of psychology rat driven psychology at that point is oh no no no animals don't think Harry was the pioneer and working on something that seemed perverse almost namely that animals could organize their behavior and learn and even animals would solve complicated problems in which they had open election lift the thing and so on and so on for no purpose other than to solve the puzzle yeah for Harlow proving that animals can sink was just the beginning now he needed to breed monkeys for further experiments and when he separated the infants from their mothers to prevent infection he made another startling discovery first of all the baby monkeys were taken away for the bottom they were put in these cages with heating pads on it and they would put a loose diaper in there every day how to take these diapers out the monkeys had to play with and put clean ones in but as the monkeys got older they didn't want to let go there all diapers the monkeys sort of stock cotton barking and crying rockins it was pretty obvious as soon as you keep in the diaper they would calm down yeah yeah he saw something with the monkeys clinging to the diapers that intrigued him he decided to take what he was seeing in these monkeys that he knew so well and take a whack at one of the really big ideas right which was that love doesn't exist this simple basic reaction made us believe that we could define a nation but it previously been undefinable and unmeasurable babies love for its mother thank you now Harry Harlow was eager to study love in a laboratory to venture into new territory with work that was fraught with controversy and much of it driven by the principle that the best way to understand the heart is to break it yeah maverick american psychologist Harry Harlow had pioneered the use of monkeys for scientific research he had observed that baby monkey sought out physical contact and attachment for Harlow this was evidence that animals can love and with this idea he said about turning the science of psychology on its head yeah it wasn't a question of whether or not this attachment phenomenon was real about from our point of view the only question was how do you set up an experiment to see how this attachment we started designing some type of object at the monkey put could yeah now this is the wire mother hollow and his team created to artificial and contrasting surrogate mothers for the baby monkeys this is a cloth leather it is only a wire mother with a cloth cover we deliberately made the face is different this has nothing to do with the present experiment having separated the baby monkeys from their own mother's Harlow wanted to prove that they would choose the soft comforting surrogate mom with no food over the wire mother with milk if he could do this he knew it would transform the way we raise our children yeah they have absolute patients they're available 24 hours a day they never school like their babies in a and we have absolute experimental control ultimatum yeah he took why your mother and a cloth mother and in the simplest experiment onlywire mom holds the bottle right cloth mom's just cuddly that's it and now for the real question to which mother is there an emotional response yeah what they found was that these monkeys been was 23 and a half hours out of 24 on the cloth mother there's some wonderful pictures of a monkey when these are side-by-side a baby monkey holding onto clock mom sideways to get the milk right doesn't like goal of the cloth mother why exactly is the cloth mother the preferred attachment figure well Harry believe that it was the product of what he called contact Comfort by proving that contact Comfort or touch was as important to infants as food Harlow's findings run counter to what parents were being advised in the nineteen fifties this was a cold era for child-rearing a time when physical intimacy was discouraged yeah give the kid the food need to keep it warm keep it clean but you know don't muck things up by cuddling and so on especially boys you let the cry out to become men you if you if you cuddle the boy too much you might even become gay yeah yeah I think it's a large part because of the work of harlow that list of see human development in a very different way and that social contact and physical contact and other things that he showed with his experiments are really critical so now it's common knowledge that cuddling and holding comfort is this is as important if from harris point of view more important yeah yeah now hollow wanted to put the love between mother and child to the test and he devised another more sinister experiment for his baby monkeys let's find out how deep and abiding this feeling of affection of the baby for its class mother really is what happens when they go out in the world what do they look like when they have to interact with something else and they put them just in a robe illness and really designed this with with in a little odd strange objects could be bugs and paper and things to climb on and said go too much we know that when our own children are taken to a strange place about their mother they are often over phone with their this room is just such a new and strange environment for the baby monkeys if you put cloth mom in you can see the monkey run for Mom the touch that ability to cuddle and hold on I had built a relationship and a kind of security feeling you put wire mom in some basic mom the baby stay on the floor crying for Holland his experiment with the strange environment had been a success it proved the strength of the bond between the baby monkeys and their cloth mothers but it was not enough now hollow wanted to push things even further and created another experiment one that would terrify the baby monkeys now suppose that in addition to an environment that is merely strange we produce one that's really fighting really right right I we use fearsome I Alana because well as a child do when it's frightened runs to his father as disturbing as Harry Harlow's study what's with the baby monkeys he was a pioneer in highlighting the importance of warmth and affection in the development of security and social attitude of human beings I hope you have a better understanding of some of the topics in development this was a very brief overview of issues associated with developmental psychology thank you


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