Human Development: Prenatal and Perinatal Periods Part II

So we'll go ahead and get on into this material again As we get into things I want to point out that I made a mistake and I had Dr

David Currie here filming the other day and I went up to him because I can't be an expert on everything I'm not a geneticist in fact I know that what I said was wrong because I went up to him and said everything accurate and he's like, one thing One thing I misspoke when I was talking about deoxyribonucleic acids and I said these little four that were bonded together were proteins, of course, they're not, they're nucleic acids, they code for protein production and so if somebody was in here and they knew that was the case and they knew I misspoke, please feel free to speak up I really I am not threatened in any way shape or form by people's knowledge If I make a mistake, I don't want to send that out to a bunch of people wrong – just go, oh oh, that, what you meant to say was nucleic acids, not proteins

And I would go yes, thank you very much and fix that right away so the genetic information you know I went and so genes code for protein right and that might result in identifiable trace but it's genes and not traits that are inherited, and so you know, I pointed this out the other day, these critical periods, the teratogens we talked about, and their effects and I said that the embryonic stage is one of the most vulnerable critical periods, that's the embryo phase, prior to transition to the fetus, but a fetus is still vulnerable Till you're born and then once you're born you're vulnerable too, right? So you've got to keep in mind that that we all are biological entities and a biological entity can suffer physical damage at any given point that it might have all kinds of possible outcomes and remember way back when I started talking about how you won the cosmic lottery by being born at all, because the odds are stacked against us so heavily in the cosmos itself, but then here on earth the time frame we live and we talk about how you can take somebody in industrialized medicine society and they're five-months-old and you can help them live through heroic medical efforts that didn't even exist you know 100 years ago, fifty years ago The access to it still doesn't exist to a lot places but just the fertilization of the sperm and the egg about two out of five times doesn't actually implant, and all those that implant do not make it to term So it's it's rough getting here You won the lottery but sometimes it don't feel like a winning ticket

Sometimes rough life comes afterwards and were wondering about it so this is where we left off The critical periods – talking about substances when we're talking about teratogens which means we're talk about molecules that cross the placental barrier and can then affect the unborn organism at whatever stage it may be in and then some of those molecules are obviously drugs because if they can affect you mentally, in other words if you can feel the effects of them, they can affect your brain, then they're passing through the blood brain barrier which is more restrictive than the placental barrier, which has to let in much larger molecules like nutrients, right? Bigger molecules Maternal illness then is another type of teratogen and what are we talking about here? Germs, right, bacteria and viruses So if they can cross the placental barrier they can affect the developing organism at whatever stage it may be in and the damage it can do can greatly depend on what stage it is in keeping in mind that many people don't even know they're pregnant Women

People Women are people too You all see that covergirl ad that came out and says, women can, girls can I like that because it shows quite clearly everything women have been allowed to do in the last 100 years, they've been able to do They just hadn't been allowed to do everything but one thing they do for all of us is make all of us

So behind every great man is a woman literally, literally wouldn't exist without it, but here we have the fact that the mother's biological system is interacting with the unborn organism's biological system in such a way that it could cause damage if teratogens are to cross those barriers, and if you don't know you're pregnant at the most critical time you may not know to quit smoking or to quit drinking or to quit using particular drugs and you certainly don't control when you get sick, and certain kinds of diseases, measles and others, will have very negative effects and here are a couple that are really damaging, herpes and AIDS can be transmitted via contact with the mother's fluids during birth So baby is born, it's got eyes, it's got a mouth, it's got nasal membranes, right, it's got it's got ways in which viruses can be transmitted and so herpes via lesion contact, AIDS via blood contact

Herpes can give us a child that has microcephaly, small head growth, paralysis, deafness, blindness, brain damage, and possibly death That's hard core AIDS: 30% of mothers with aids pass the disease and the progress is rapid in infants because they don't have developed immune systems that are being attacked that you can then shore up with a cocktail of drugs that help to bolster the immune system They don't have hardly any kind of immune system whatsoever, which is why it's important to use breast milk if you can use breast milk because you're transmitting antibodies to help build up the immune system of the infant So you have all these kinds of factors impinging on the outcome on a biological level that then translates into a life experience of some kind or another

So preventing these things is important Access to prenatal care is critical but not everybody has that kind of access So here you've got this very straight forward system You've got maturing follicles releasing eggs going out over here into the fallopian tubes Now you've got the penis, right, right here

At certain times in life, I hope it's a loving occasion, right? I hope it's a committed occasion, but it's going to go up and down until it goes spurt and when it spurts, we're talking about millions of sperm Millions of sperm going after, theoretically, one egg but more than one egg could be released correct? Right and people go to fertilization treatments sometimes have triplets or quadruplets or sextuplets or seven tuplits or eight tuplets or nine tuplets caust they got extra eggs released and all those sperm are still there, so as many eggs as are out there to be fertilized, they may be fertilized but that doesn't necessarily mean you're going to be an organism Start our with your old zygote we've got coming fertilization, fascinating, all sperm going after it, one penetrates the egg and then the egg sets up a force field in a way, right, metaphorically, and it keeps the others out So you've got one egg, one sperm fusing, right We've got 46 chromosomes, 23 from father, 23 from mother, blending together in kind of a crap shoot random fashion

It's not totally random because you have the genetic heritage of the entire lineage of the organisms that are coming to bear here potentially and then you get fertilization and you're now back to one single cell which is fascinating, right, and then it's two and then it's four and then it's eight and it goes on and on and then we've got a blastocyte and then we've got morula, morula turn into blastocyte, and then it's off through the fallopian tubes and hopefully it doesn't get implanted there, it keeps on dividing because then you can get what? Tubal pregnancy, which could be a threat obviously to the unborn organism but also to the mother's health, right? So then you're hoping it travels on down and what is this menses that women have to deal with month after month after month with a body that's set up to create a receptive environment for fertilization in the uterus So you have this uterine lining building up and if no fertilization occurs, in a monthly fashion it sloughs off and that is the discharge that women have to deal with Men don't know shit about and shouldn't say nothing about except may I help you? How may I be of service to you cause, thank you, women for doing this for us But if you got implantation, and everything goes well, you still don't got guaranteed birth, right? At that point, some still mothers not aware she's pregnant We're talking about days and then we're talking about the first few weeks and we transmit that information and you realize this is the source of our debates

Keep in mind everybody's got a point of view Just cause you hold yours tightly doesn't make it rightly It's everybody in America's got a right to their opinion and to express it And it would be nice if they had compassion and respect for other people's opinions because then you could have a much nicer debate just as passionate because people's values matter But know, on the other side, when we look up here, that's your first baby picture

Look how cute you are You so cute It's a little baby A little baby And then you become this cute thing

And at this point, you can see it's kind of debatable Is that a human being? Well, it's certainly the seeds of a human being No human being that exists doesn't go through that phase But that's the debate and I'm not answering the debate cause I don't claim to have the answer I don't know the definitive thing

I think that would be a more intellectually honest position for a lot of people to take I can respect people's positions on it but I don't have a definitive answer and no matter how much they believe they have a definitive answer it is debatable or it wouldn't be debated, and that's becoming more clearly human-like Looks like a little kidney bean with an eyeball and now we see that, right, we got the amniotic sac and you're underwater You're a sea creature You're floating around, and you're flying around in here woooo – and we can inject a little needle right into here and pull out a little bit of that amniotic fluid and do some genetic testing and you can decide whether or not a number of things are going to happen

Whether it's going to be genetically male or genetically female The sex of the baby can be determined and in some ways may be the basis of some kinds of selective abortions which is highly debatable about the morality of that, right? But there are also societal pressures in some spaces in the world particularly to have male children There always have been Males have always been favored over females It's not right from my view, but that's my view

Other places, that's the way it is But you could also look into other kinds of chromosomal damage or potential chromosomal damage and potential for birth defects, and you can predict from that, not with perfect accuracy, but with probabilities, what are the likely outcomes of having this baby come to term and be born, and is it going to be devastating in terms of its physical abilities or is it not likely to be, or can you not tell it all Those or pieces of information that human beings get and they have to understand and deal with it and frankly many of them don't understand it, but then we get up to here and we're looking at a fetus, that's pretty clearly looking like a person now We've got little arms forming, little hands forming, little legs, right, and that's the phase, the embryonic phase, that thalidomide, you all familiar with thalidomide, it's a drug to stop morning sickness that was used fairly widely in Britain, I believe in the fifties, and they hadn't done widespread testing on humans, they just found it stopped morning sickness but what it also stopped was the formation of limbs in children and so they would have limb buds that did not develop fully into arms and legs and they were crudely called flipper babies It was only after noticing patterns of this happening, that they started to put two and two together, that the drug was actually causing this

So it was a benevolent thing Who wants to live through morning sickness? I never will have to but I certainly wouldn't want to have to if I was a woman pregnant and they found a drug that they thought helped but it actually damaged devastatingly the unborn organism So now we're getting up into here and moving forward, you know we got your placenta and umbilical cord There's your first baby picture that most people are familiar with, the sonogram, right? Those are really accurate aren't they? Kind of, sort of They took one of my son the day he was born

They said I think he might be about eight pounds I'm like he looks like he might be bigger than that he was ten pounds four ounces So they were off by a factor of, you know, 25 percent or so but it did give us a picture And so you can see pretty gross in this instance gross meaning really just rough details You're using sonar technology to create a picture outside on a screen of what's going on inside

And then you get born and we've got to cut that umbilical cord There it is right here You may not be able to see it hanging off there Cut it, tie it off and poke it in you've got an innie, leave it out you've got an outie belly button Isn't that crazy? All your nutrients and all your waste in this life line

And now you're out You don't need it anymore Shoop, poop, and you're done with that Good luck cause the world's a wild place but even if you get born really really really early, you might be able to make it If you're in the right place in the world, with the right access to the right care

That's hard core if you think about all that stuff That's why this is relevant to human development and psychology in general


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