The ARCH Child Development Study (2nd half of video)

So we are really interested in fetal growth as this broad measure of fetal development There are a lot of things that influence fetal growth

I�m not going to get into them specifically We do know that fetal growth is related to behavior problems A lot of research has shown that smaller size at birth is related to increased internalizing problems, increased externalizing problems, but we don't have a really good model to explain why Then we were thinking about cognitive processes Something that's going on during the fetal development period that it is influencing cognitive processes which then might influence these behavioral problems that we see

This is the background for this project So fetal growth was measured via birth weight Z-score We used the CBCL which is a maternal report of child problems We were looking at just broadband symptomatology for internalizing and externalizing problems broadly And we used the toolbox to get at the specific cognitive processes

I really liked using the toolbox because you could break down the cognitive processes into its individualized components So we think about vocabulary and inhibitory control, flexible thinking as related but they are actually distinct constructs It might mean that specific cognitive processes might be mediating or moderating this relationship All right So the participants were�– the first half

So 73 of our kids Average age, about 57 months About half female Mostly Caucasian Some African-American and other races

[ Bell Ringing ] [ Laughter ] >> Statistical analyses are multiple linear regression and we fit a series of models The first of which is just the unadjusted association which is fetal growth and CBCL scores and then we adjusted that association for covariates so things like maternal IQ, sociodemographics and so on and so forth Then we started to adjust that association between fetal growth and CBCL scores with the cognitive processes This is what we found So over here we have all of the associations with internalizing problems, and on the right we have all the associations with externalizing problems

Not going to talk about the externalizing problems very much As you see we didn't really find anything We found that fetal growth wasn't really associated with these externalizing problems and when we tried to adjust we still didn't find anything significant But over here we see that after we adjust for maternal IQ and sociodemographics that fetal growth is associated with these internalizing problems And when we try to adjust that association for these receptive language abilities, we see that this relationship still stands

Then we tried to adjust it for cognitive flexibility which would be the dimensional card sort task, and the relationship still remains Down here in the final model we adjusted the relationship between fetal growth and internalizing problems for inhibitory control which is this dimensional Flanker task and we see the association goes away And incorporating the inhibitory control Flanker task in the model reduces the association by about 32% And so this study suggests that smaller size for gestational age, so less fetal growth, is associated with these higher internalizing symptoms and that this association may be partially driven by cognitive processing Thank you

[ Applause ]

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